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The 1430s decade ran from January 1, 1430, to December 31, 1439.
- January 7 – Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, marries Isabella of Portugal.
- January 10 – Philip the Good founds the Order of the Golden Fleece.
- March 29 – The Ottoman Empire, under Murad II, captures Thessalonica after an eight-year siege.
- May 14 – The French first attempt to relieve the Siege of Compiègne.
- May 23 – Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians, while leading an army to relieve Compiègne.
- June 14 – William Waynflete becomes vicar of Skendleby, Lincolnshire.
- July 11 – The Battle of Trnava: The Hussites defeat the Hungarian-Moravian-Serbian army.
- October 27 – Švitrigaila succeeds his cousin, as ruler of Lithuania.
- Bratislava Castle is converted to a fortress, under Sigismund of Luxemburg.
- Optical methods are first used in the creation of art.
- With the surrender of Chalandritsa, and the citadel of Patras, to the Byzantine Despotate of the Morea, the Principality of Achaea comes to an end.
- January 9 – Pretrial investigations for Joan of Arc begin at Rouen in France, which is under English occupation.
- February 21 – The trial of Joan of Arc for heresy begins.
- March – Alexander I Aldea takes the throne of Wallachia with support from Alexander I of Moldavia.
- March 3 – Pope Eugene IV succeeds Pope Martin V, to become the 207th pope.
- May 30 – Nineteen-year-old Joan of Arc is burned at the stake in Rouen.
- June 16 – The Teutonic Knights and Švitrigaila sign the Treaty of Christmemel, creating an anti-Polish alliance.
- September – Battle of Inverlochy: Donald Balloch defeats the Royalists.
- October 30 – The Treaty of Medina del Campo is signed, consolidating peace between Portugal and Castille.
- November 9 – The Battle of Ilava: The Hungarians defeat the Hussite army.
- November 18 – A treaty in Suceava concludes an attack on Poland, launched this year by Alexander I of Moldavia during the Lithuanian Civil War.
- December 13 – Vlad, future Prince of Wallachia as Vlad II Dracul, is made a member of the Order of the Dragon. Because of this, his son Vlad III the Impaler will inspire the literary figure named Dracula.
- December 16 – Henry VI of England is crowned King of France at Notre-Dame de Paris.
- The University of Poitiers is founded.
- The Ayutthaya Kingdom besieges Angkor and sacks the Khmer capital, ending the Khmer Empire.
- Nezahualcoyotl is crowned Tlatoani of the Kingdom of Texcoco.
- Byzantine–Ottoman Wars: The Ottoman governor of Thessaly Turahan Bey breaks through the Hexamilion wall for the second time, and ravages the Peloponnese Peninsula.
- January 1 – Iliaș succeeds his father as Prince of Moldavia.
- Spring – An Albanian revolt, led by Gjergj Arianit Komneni, breaks out against the Ottoman Empire, and spreads through most of Albania.
- April – At the end of the Hook and Cod wars, Jacqueline, Countess of Hainaut and Countess of Holland and Zeeland, is forced by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, to abdicate all her estates in his favour, ending Hainaut and Holland as independent counties.
- May 6 – Jan van Eyck's Ghent Altarpiece is first presented to the public.
- June 1 – Battle of San Romano: Florence defeats Siena.
- August 31 – Sigismund Kęstutaitis attempts the capture or murder of Švitrigaila, his rival for the throne of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Švitrigaila manages to escape.
- December 8 – Lithuanian Civil War (1432–1438): The first battle between the forces of Švitrigaila and Sigismund Kęstutaitis is fought near the town of Oszmiana (Ashmyany), launching the most active phase of the civil war in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
- The Université de Caen is founded.
- The first baccalaureate service is believed to have originated at the University of Oxford.
- Winter – Much of the English town of Alnwick (in Northumbria) is burnt by a Scottish raiding party.
- May 31 – Sigismund is crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome. There has been no crowned Emperor since the death of his father, Charles IV, in 1378.
- August 14 – Edward I becomes King of Portugal.
- September – Cosimo de' Medici, later the de facto ruler of Florence and patron of Marsilio Ficino, is exiled by the Albizzi/Strozzi faction (Cosimo returns a year later, to the day, in 1434).
- October – Iliaș of Moldavia is dethroned by his brother Stephen II (their rivalry will be arbitrated eventually by the Polish king).
- December – Kalantiaw (of what would later be known as the Philippines) supposedly promulgates the legal code eventually referred to as the Code of Kalantiaw.
- The Ming Dynasty in China disbands their naval fleet, after the last great maritime expedition, led by Admiral Zheng He, altering the balance of power in the Indian Ocean, and making it easier for Portugal and other Western naval powers to gain dominance over the seas.
- In Ming Dynasty China, cotton is listed as a permanent item of trade, on the tax registers of Songjiang prefecture.
- April 14 – The foundation stone of Nantes Cathedral in Nantes, France, is laid.
- May 30 – Hussite Wars – Battle of Lipany: The Catholics and Ultraquists defeat the Taborites, ending the Hussite Wars.
- June 19 or 20 – Zara Yaqob becomes Emperor of Ethiopia.
- Late June – Miner Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson begins a Swedish rebellion against King Eric of Pomerania (named the Engelbrekt rebellion after him), eventually leading to the deposition of the king.
- July 10–August 9 – Suero de Quiñones and his companions stage the Passo Honroso, at the Órbigo in León.
- August 16 – King Eric of Pomerania is deposed from the Swedish throne at a meeting in Vadstena. He still retains power in Denmark and Norway, though.
- September – Cosimo de' Medici returns to Florence one year, to the day, following his exile by the Albizzi and Strozzi faction.
- October 19 – The University of Catania is founded in Italy.
- Jan van Eyck paints the Arnolfini Portrait.
- Explorer Gil Eanes rounds Cape Bojador in Western Sahara, thus destroying the legends of the "Dark Sea".
- Portuguese traders deliver their first cargo of African slaves to Lisbon.
- In Ming Dynasty China, a long episode of drought, flood, locust infestation, and famine cripple agriculture and commerce in areas throughout the country, until 1448.
- The Puke Feud occurs in Sweden.
- January 11 – Sweden's first Riksdag of the Estates is summoned under rebel leader Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, who is elected rikshövitsman (military commander of the realm), in the absence of a king, on January 13.
- January 13 – Sicut Dudum, a papal bull forbidding the enslavement of the Guanche natives in Canary Islands by the Spanish, is promulgated by Pope Eugene IV.
- February 2 – The Kingdom of Naples passes to René of Anjou.
- By August – Battle of Podraga: Brothers Iliaș and Stephen II battle to a draw for the throne of Moldavia, leading to a joint rule by them, helped by the intervention of the Polish king.
- August 5 – Battle of Ponza: Alfonso V of Aragon is captured.
- September 1 – Battle of Pabaiskas: Sigismund Kęstutaitis decisively defeats Grand Duke Švitrigaila, in the decisive battle of the civil war in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
- September 21 – The Treaty of Arras between Charles VII of France and Philip III of Burgundy ends the English-Burgundian alliance.
- October 14 – Eric of Pomerania is reinstated as king of Sweden, only briefly, however, since he is once again deposed in January of the following year.
- Francis of Paola founds the Order of the Minims in Italy.
- China returns to a policy of isolation.
- Gil Eanes and Afonso Gonçalves Baldaia explore the coast of Africa, as far as the Angra dos Ruivos (now in Western Sahara).
- January 11 – Eric of Pomerania is deposed from the Swedish throne for the second time, only three months after having been reinstated. Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson remains the leader of the land, in his capacity of rikshövitsman (military commander of the realm).
- February – Charles Knutsson becomes joint rikshövitsman with Engelbrekt (the two will share the title, until Engelbrekt's death in May).
- April – Paris is recaptured from the English by French forces during the Hundred Years War.
- May 4 – Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson is murdered by a personal enemy, while on his way to Stockholm for negotiations. Charles Knutsson temporarily holds the position of leader of Sweden alone. The probable first meeting of the Riksdag of the Estates takes place afterwards, in Uppsala, Sweden.
- June 25
- July 5 – The Hussite Wars effectively end in Bohemia. Sigismund is accepted as King.
- July 29 – French forces abandon their Siege of Calais.
- August 30 – Brunelleschi's Dome at Florence Cathedral is dedicated.
- September 1 – Eric of Pomerania is once again reinstated as king of Sweden. Charles Knutsson, at the same time, resigns the post of rikshövitsman.
- September 10 – Scottish defeat the English at the Battle of Piperdean.
- Vlad II Dracul seizes the recently vacated throne of Wallachia, with Hungarian support.
- The Bosnian language is first mentioned in a document.
- Date of the Visokom papers, the last direct sources on the old town of Visoki.
- In Ming dynasty China, the inauguration of the Zhengtong Emperor takes place.
- In Ming dynasty China, a significant portion of the southern grain tax is commuted to payments in silver, known as the Gold Floral Silver (jinhuayin). This comes about due to officials' and military generals' increasing demands to be paid in silver instead of grain, as commercial transactions draw more silver into nationwide circulation. Some counties have trouble transporting all the required grain to meet their tax quotas, so it makes sense to pay the government in silver, a medium of exchange that is already abundant amongst landowners, through their own private commercial affairs.
- The Florentine polymath Leon Battista Alberti begins writing the treatise On Painting, in which he argues for the importance of mathematical perspective, in the creation of three-dimensional vision on a two-dimensional plane. This follows the ideas of Masaccio, and his concepts of linear perspective and vanishing point in artwork.
- Afonso Gonçalves Baldaia becomes the first European to explore the western coast of Africa, past the Tropic of Cancer.
- Johannes Gutenberg begins work on the printing press.
- February 20–21 – James I of Scotland is fatally stabbed at Perth in a failed coup by his uncle and former ally, Walter Stewart, Earl of Atholl.
- March 11–25 – Nova Scorpii AD 1437 is observed from Seoul, Korea. 
- March 25 – In a ceremony in Holyrood Abbey, James II of Scotland is crowned at the age of six by Pope Eugene IV. For security of the crown, the capital of Scotland is moved to Edinburgh, from Dunfermline.
- April 23 – Malmö in Denmark (now Sweden) receives its current coat of arms.
- June – A peasant army gathers at Bobâlna during the Transylvanian peasant revolt. The revolt will be crushed by January of next year.
- September 20–October 19 – A Portuguese attempt to conquer Tangier fails, and Prince Ferdinand is taken hostage.
- December 9 – Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, dies.
- Sandside Chase in the north of Scotland: Clan Mackay defeat the Clan Gunn of Caithness.
- The Kazan Khanate is established.
- Ulugh Beg's Zij-i Sultani star catalogue is published.
- January 1 – Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary.
- January 9 – The city of Cluj (Kolozsvár) is conquered, thus marking the end of the Transylvanian peasant revolt, which started at Bobâlna.
- January 10 – The Council of Florence opens in Ferrara.
- February 2 – The Unio Trium Nationum pact is established in Transylvania.
- February 10 – All Souls' College is founded in the University of Oxford by Henry Chichele, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Henry VI of England as a graduate institution.
- March 18 – Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Germany.
- July 7 – Charles VII of France issues the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, giving the French church control over the appointment of bishops, and depriving the Pope of French ecclesiastical revenues.
- September 13 – Afonso V becomes King of Portugal.
- Pachacuti becomes ruler of the Kingdom of Cusco and begins its expansion into the Inca Empire (Tahuantinsuyu).
- At 95 years of age, Nang Keo Phimpha becomes queen of Lan Xang for a few months before being deposed and killed.
- Just two years after the Ming dynasty court of China allowed landowners paying the grain tax to pay their tax in silver instead, the Ming court now decides to close all silver mines and prohibit all private silver mining in Zhejiang and Fujian provinces. This is a concerted effort to halt the increase of silver circulating into the market. The illegal mining of silver is now an offense punishable by death; although it becomes a dangerous affair, the high demand for silver also makes it very lucrative, and so many chose to defy the government and continue to mine.
- May 4 – Battle of Grotnik: Władysław III's royal army defeats the Hussite movement in Poland.
- June 29 – Date of Venerable Macarius' Miracle of the Moose, according to Russian hagiographers.
- September 8 – Cardinal Giovanni Vitelleschi captures Foligno, ending Trinci's signoria.
- September 29 or October 1 – Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway, is declared deposed in Sweden. Karl Knutsson Bonde continues to serve as Regent of Sweden.
- November 12 – In England, Plymouth becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.
- Johannes Gutenberg develops printing with movable type at Mainz at about this date.
- The Great Ordinance is adopted by the French Estates-General. This measure grants the king the exclusive right to raise troops, and establishes the taxation measure known as the taille, in support of a standing army.
- The Council of Florence is moved to Florence.
- At the Portuguese Cortes, Peter, Duke of Coimbra is appointed Regent of the Kingdom.
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- King, Ross (2000). Brunelleschi's Dome. London: Chatto & Windus. ISBN 0-7011-6903-6.
- Shara, M. M.; Iłkiewicz, K.; Mikołajewska, J.; Pagnotta, A.; Bode, M. F.; Crause, L. A.; Drozd, K.; Faherty, J.; Fuentes-Morales, I.; Grindlay, J. E.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Pretorius, M. L.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Stephenson, F. R.; Tappert, C.; Zurek, D. (2017). "Proper-motion age dating of the progeny of Nova Scorpii AD 1437". Nature. 548 (7669): 558–560. arXiv:1704.00086. Bibcode:2017Natur.548..558S. doi:10.1038/nature23644.
- "Solving a 600-Year-Old Cosmic Mystery". August 30, 2017.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7126-5616-0.