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Prince of Yan
Died5 January 1286 (aged 43)
Posthumous name
Emperor Wenhui Mingxiao (文惠明孝皇帝)
Temple name
Yuzong (裕宗)
DynastyYuan dynasty
FatherKublai Khan
ReligionTibetan Buddhism

Zhenjin (Mongolian: Чингим ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠮ, Chinese: 真金; pinyin: Zhēnjīn; 1243 – 1285[1] or January 5, 1286), also rendered as Jingim, Chinkim, or Chingkim (Mongolian: Чингим/Chingim), was the son of Kublai Khan and grandson of Tolui.


He was born as second son to Kublai Khan and Chabi Khatun. The Chinese Zen monk Haiyun gave him the name Zhenjin ("True Gold") when he was born in 1243.[2] He was created Prince of Yan (燕王), became the head of the Central Secretariat (Zhongshu Sheng) by his father in 1262,[2] and was designated as the Crown Prince (皇太子) of the Yuan dynasty by Kublai Khan in 1273.[3]

He was known as a strong supporter of Confucianism, having been tutored by Chinese scholars as Yao Shu (1203–1280), Dou Mo (1196–1280), Liu Bingzhong (1216–1274) and Wang Xun. Among others, he was noted to have studied Classic of Poetry and Classic of Filial Piety.[4] After death of Zhenjin's rival Ahmad Fanakati (according to Rashidaddin, as a result of plot by Zhenjin),[5] a Confucian-trained official in the South even proposed Kublai to abdicate in favor of Zhenjin in 1285, as a result Kublai was furious. He was also known to be a friend of Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, who wrote the famous treatise "Explanation of the knowable" for Zhenjin.[6]

According to the History of Yuan, he died of alcoholism on 5 January 1286, eight years before his father Kublai Khan. However, it may not have been as simple as merely drinking too much. It also stated that shortly before his death, some ministers of the court wanted to propose that Kublai Khan abdicate his throne to Prince Zhenjin on account of old age and because Zhenjin was highly respected throughout the empire. However, Zhenjin tried to prevent this from happening. Unfortunately, Kublai Khan found out anyway and was furious, which terrified Zhenjin and may have led him to overdrink.[7][2] Distressed by his death, Kublai Khan made Zhenjin's son Temür the new Crown Prince. He was posthumously renamed as Taizi Mingxiao by Kublai on 25 February 1293. Temür gave him posthumous name Emperor Wenhui Mingxiao (文惠明孝皇帝) and temple name Yuzong (Chinese: 裕宗; lit. 'Affluent Ancestor') on 3 June 1294.


He had a senior wife and a concubine:

  1. Kökejin Khatun — from Khongirad tribe
  2. Concubine Anchinmishi
  3. Unknown concubine
    • Senior Princess of Qi, Qutadmish — married to Körgüz from Öngüds, son of Ay Buqa, Prince of Zhao (趙王) and Yuelie (daughter of Kublai)[8]
    • Grand Princess of Lu, Nangabula — married to Manzitai from Khongirad clan, Prince of Lu
    • Princess Budagan — married to Zangpo Pal[9]


In popular culture[edit]



  1. ^ Morris., Rossabi (2012). The Mongols : a very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. xxi. ISBN 9780199841455. OCLC 808367351.
  2. ^ a b c Atwood, Christopher Pratt (2004). Encyclopedia of Mongolia and the Mongol empire. New York, NY: Facts On File. p. 278. ISBN 0-8160-4671-9. OCLC 52901464.
  3. ^ Roberts, J. A. G. (1999). A Concise History of China. Harvard University Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-674-00075-9.
  4. ^ Franke, Herbert (1952). Could the Mongol Emperors Read and Write Chinese?. p. 31.
  5. ^ Hamadani, Rashid al-Din. The Successors of Genghis Khan. Translated by Boyle, John Andrew. p. 293.
  6. ^ Kara, György (2016). "Reading the Middle Mongol Translation of 'Phags-pa's Shes-bya rab-gsal in the St. Petersburg Manuscript and in a Print Fragment from Qaraqota". Central Asiatic Journal. 59 (1–2): 43–60. doi:10.13173/centasiaj.59.1-2.0043. ISSN 0008-9192.
  7. ^ Song Lian, Wang Yi, et al. 宋濂 王禕 等撰. "Yuan Shi" 元史 [History of Yuan]. Taiwan shangwu yinshuguan 臺灣商務印書館 "The Commercial Press, Ltd.", 2010.
  8. ^ Zhao 2008, p. 157.
  9. ^ "Zangpo Pel". The Treasury of Lives. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  10. ^ Anne F. Broadbridge, Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire (2018), p. 118, 239
  11. ^ Denis C. Twitchett, Herbert Franke, John King Fairbank, The Cambridge History of China: Volume VI (1994), p. 206
  12. ^ Marco Polo at IMDb
  13. ^ "Netflix's 'Marco Polo' Sets Its Cast". The Hollywood Reporter. April 8, 2014. Retrieved April 8, 2014.


Works cited
  • Zhao, George Qingzhi (2008), Marriage as Political Strategy and Cultural Expression: Mongolian Royal Marriages from World Empire to Yuan Dynasty, Peter Lang, ISBN 1433102757